Marie Curie is considered one of the great female figures who revolutionized the world of science. She was born on November 7, 1867 in Warsaw, which was then known as the Tsardom of Poland, baptized with the name of Maria Sklodowska.
He developed his passion for science thanks to the enormous determination he maintained in his life, even though he started his studies clandestinely in Warsaw, he finally had to leave Poland to be able to formally enter a university and start his career scientific. She managed to enroll in France and by the year 1893 she had obtained her first degree in Science, at the French Sorbonne, which would mark just the first step in a long path of scientific achievements that would make her find herself among the main influential names in the world of science.
There were many achievements of this scientist, she even became a professor at the University of Paris, which would have been quite a challenge for a woman of her time, however, her contribution to science It went much further than his teaching contribution.
Discoveries of Marie Curie
In the year 1897, she began her journey through multiple experiments that would help her transform the world of medicine and help her better understand the structures of atoms. p>
Curie, with the support of her husband, was able to determine that radiation is energy released by a substance in the form of particles or waves, which also includes sunlight and radio waves. At the same time, her research allowed her to identify that energy originated at the subatomic level, and that radioactivity is a condition in which unstable atoms of an element spontaneously emit radiation as atomic nuclei change. >
Curie and her husband were pioneers in the investigation of the invisible rays emitted by uranium, which was a phenomenon recently discovered by Henri Becquerel. His research showed that lightning could pass through solid matter, fog, and photographic film, making the air conduct electricity.
Within the research process she began to work with a mineral known as pitchblende, and she was able to determine that this mineral was more radioactive than the pure element uranium. Since the readings of this mineral showed large readings of radioactivity, she undertook an investigation into the possible composition of a new chemical element. P>
Curie and her husband Pierre began to analyze this element, after long experiments they managed to extract a black powder 330 times more radioactive than uranium, which they called "polonium", a name that was given in honor of Curie's native country. Marie. Polonium would become chemical element atomic number 84.
And the investigations did not stop, later they had identified that the liquid that remained after having extracted the polonium was even more radioactive than the same, and it was present in smaller quantities. This finding led them to identify a new new element, 900 times more radioactive than polonium, this new element was identified with the name "Radio" name derived from the Latin "lightning" and which would be assigned the atomic number 88.< /p>
In 1902 Marie was able to completely isolate radium (as radium chloride), and was able to determine that it has an atomic weight of 225.93.
Curie made contributions to the study of X-rays and X-ray machines at the beginning of World War I in 1914, she worked on the X-ray machine which would have been discovered by the German scientist Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895 , used radium to be the source of gamma rays in X-ray machines, which allowed more precise and powerful X-rays to be obtained.In addition, he created smaller and more portable X-ray machines that made medical work in war easier, helping to save many lives through his development
According to historian Tadeusz Estreicher, Curie's work made substantial contributions to world development in the 20th and 21st centuries. Thanks to her important contributions at a scientific level, she became worthy of different distinctions and awards. Among those that stand out are 2 Nobel prizes in different sciences, prizes that allowed her to continue financing her scientific research. P>
Acknowledgments to the work of Marie Curie
Marie Curie stands out as the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, and in addition, she was the first person to receive this type of mention twice, as well as being the only person to have been awarded in two separate sciences. p>
- Nobel Prize in Physics obtained in 1903.
- Davy Medal obtained in 1903.
- Matteucci medal obtained in 1904.
- Nobel Prize in Chemistry obtained in 1911.
- Willard Gibbs Award obtained in 1921.
- In a 2009 survey conducted by New Scientist magazine, Marie Curie was selected as "the most inspiring woman in science."
- The symbol "Ci", "curio", unit of radioactivity, was named in this way as a tribute to the work of Marie Curie and her husband. li>
- In the year 1946, the element with atomic number 96 curium (Cm) was named, as a tribute to the work of Marie Curie and her husband. li>
- The radioactive minerals known as curite, sklodowskite, and cuprosklodowskite have been named in honor of Curie.
In addition, numerous institutes, streets, avenues and universities have been baptized with the name of this great woman of science.
Curie died on July 4, 1934 at the age of 66, the cause of her death was attributed to aplastic anemia, which is thought to have been a consequence of the many years she was exposed to radiation, this would end up deteriorating his health at an early age, even so his legacy has been imprinted in the history of science, representing a fundamental part of scientific development..