Observation of the universe has always fascinated human beings. Stars have been very useful for terrestrial orientation and navigation, and their mysterious appearance arouses great curiosity.
In this masterpiece of optics we can observe space from the ground. Through a mirror and glass lenses. The telescope allows us to see celestial bodies in detail. This is a fundamental tool of astronomy, each technological development on this instrument means an advance in the compression of the universe.
These are the best known telescopes in the world
The observation of celestial bodies is a very ancient activity. Until recently, however, large telescopes had not been built. However, there are already very powerful telescopes through which precise information about the planets and the universe is obtained.
The study of astrology has made great strides in the construction of telescopes. Next, we will make a brief review of the best known today.
A technological marvel that unravels the secrets of the universe and of the best known of those that are currently in the world. The Hubble Space Telescope is so extraordinary that it extends our understanding of the fate of galaxies and reveals forces we didn't know about.
His revelations range from black holes, astrophysical jets and supernovae. The most famous telescope on earth never touches the planet, as it remains in orbit since its launch.
Launched in 1990, it has been in constant orbit above us for more than 30 years. Also, it takes one 96 minutes to go around the earth. Named after Edwin Hubble, an American astronomical pioneer, it is the first space-based optical telescope.
One of its functions is to send data through black and white images. These images are modified by experts by placing colors of the chemical compositions that Hubble detects. Such as, blue detects oxygen, red shows sulfur, and green hydrogen. At the same time movement is added based on other data thrown.
The images detected by the telescope have an optical resolution greater than 0.1 arc seconds. It consists of a reflector with two mirrors, the main one being 2.4 meters in diameter.
It has several spectrometers and three cameras: one with a narrow field, to take images of small fields. The second wide field, to obtain images of planets and the third an infrared camera.
Similarly, it is equipped with solar panels that generate electricity powering the cameras and also four motors that orient and stabilize the telescope. In the same way, it has a refrigeration equipment for the infrared camera and the spectrometer, which work at 180°C.
Chilean Observatory of La Silla
The first southern European observatory since its opening in 1969 has been at the forefront of astronomy. Its battery of instruments has allowed astronomers, innovative discoveries.
Since then and 57 years after its inauguration, it continues to push the limits of astronomy, revealing impressive details of the cosmos. Providing data for more than 200 astronomical articles each year.
Built on the Chilean summit of Cinchado Norte on the outskirts of the Atacama desert, this place is colloquially known as the chair for its particular shape of a saddle. It has 18 telescopes, of which 5 were built by the European Southern Observatory organization.
Equipped with a 3.6 meter primary mirror, it houses the world's largest extrasolar planet finder. It has a spectrograph with unmatched precision.This instrument was named HARPS or High Precision Radial Velocity Planet Finder
Spitzer Space Telescope (SST)
It was launched on August 25, 2003 from the Kennedy Space Center. It has a heliocentric type orbit, which moves it away from our planet about 15 million kilometers per year. Unlike most telescopes, this one was not named by a panel of scientists. Instead, an open contest allowed children to choose their name.
This infrared space telescope is the fourth and last of NASA's large telescopes. Through it, they sought to study the cold systems and the oldest galaxies in the universe. It was expected to have a useful life of two years, but by staying strong, it spent 15 years collecting astronomical information.
He is credited with discovering Saturn's new ring and black holes. On the other hand, one of the most important discoveries was that of planets outside our universe.
In 2007 he obtained data from what could be called the hottest planet recorded up to that time, with 3700°c it was named HD14026b. Similarly, in August 2008, he discovered an extraordinary amount of water vapor within a star system in formation called NGC 1333-IRAS 4B.
For the first time it was seen how water could reach the space where planets form. Because the vapor from the central cloud of the system falls on the disk of star dust. For which, it is suspected that the planets would arise from there.
Large Binocular Telescope
Originally named the Columbus Project, it is a ground-based telescope and is located in Arizona at 3,260 meters above Mount Graham. At the same time, it is part of the Mount Graham Observatory.
Considered one of the most technologically advanced optical telescopes, the opening of its two mirrors makes it the largest optical telescope in the world. It is credited with an astronomical breakthrough that allows us to continue into the next era of ground-based astronomy.
Used to discover the galactic cluster 2XMMJ0830 over 7 billion light years distant from Earth. In addition, in 2007 it detected a 36° magnitude afterglow from the gamma-ray burst GRB070125.
This telescope is of the Gregorian Binocular type, its mirrors are 8.4 meters each. Its first observation was on October 12, 2005 through mirror number one. His second light through mirror number 2 was on September 18, 2006. It was until January 11 and 12, 2008 that the 2 mirrors could be used to what they call binocular light.
To conclude with this very interesting topic, we will name a series of telescopes that are under construction and that will undoubtedly mark the future of astronomy.
- Extremely large European Telescope: located in Chile, it will have a 42-meter mirror and its value will be 1.7 billion dollars.
- Thirty meter telescope: It is expected to be 8 times more powerful than any other current telescope.
- Giant Magellan Telescope: It will be located in the Atacama desert with a primary mirror of 24 meters.