# Isaac Newton

On December 25, 1642 in the town of Woolsthorpe, county of Lincolnshire in the United Kingdom, Isaac Newton was born, he was a physicist and mathematician who would leave his mark on the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century, his role was fundamental in allowing progress in the fields of physics, astronomy, mathematics, and the natural sciences, and that at the same time would mark the trajectory of science for the next three centuries.

Isaac Newton is linked to the well-known laws of gravity, motion and mathematical principles, through which the different laws we know today were formulated. He was practically the one who discovered gravity.

## Isaac Newton's 3 laws of motion

“Law of inertia” is Newton's first law, and it states that “An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by a force that unbalances it. A moving object continues to move with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted on by an unbalancing force".

Isaac Newton in his second law establishes that acceleration occurs when a force acts on a mass-because, the greater the mass of the object, the greater the force required to accelerate it. The third and final law states that "for every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction". This can be expressed mathematically

F = m·a, where “F” is the force in Newtons, “m” is the mass of the body in kilograms, and “a” is the acceleration in meters per second.

Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. So, if one body exerts a force "F" on a second body, the first body also experiences a force of the same magnitude, but in the opposite direction.

## The Law of Universal Gravity

This law states that each point mass attracts all other point masses through a force pointing along the line through both points.

According to Isaac Newton's calculations, this force is proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them, which was represented through the mathematical formula:

F = G · ((m1 m2) / r2)

These principles would serve to explain the trajectories of comets, tides, the precision of equinoxes and other astrophysical phenomena.

Of the 4 fundamental forces of the universe, the force of gravity is probably one of the most enigmatic. While it has been understood for some time how this law of physics operates at the macro scale that governs our solar system, galaxies and superclusters, it is now also known how it interacts with the other three fundamental forces at the micro level, which remains a mystery. .

The understanding of humans about the Law of Universal Gravity is a merit that must be highlighted to Newton's legacy, since it was he who managed to decipher its properties and how it governs all things big and small.

The origin of this law is often the focus of controversy, since it is said that the idea of ​​gravitation arose from the shocking incident of an apple falling on his head, which had inspired him to begin his studies on gravitation.

In his own words, Newton described the incident by saying: “We went into the garden and drank tea under the shade of some apple trees; he alone, and myself, in the midst of other speeches, he told me, was simply in the same situation as when the notion of gravitation first came to mind.“Why should that apple always descend perpendicular to the ground?” he thought to himself; caused by a falling apple"

## Shape of the Earth

Newton, also made contributions to predict the shape of the earth, which he maintained would have an "oblate spheroid" shape, that is, a sphere shape flattened at the poles. Which would be confirmed later by different scientific measurements such as Maupertuis, or Condamine, rejecting Descartes' theory.

## Mathematical Contributions of Isaac Newton

Within his mathematical contributions, Newton managed to generalize the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, developing Newton's method to approximate the roots of a function, and he also classified most of the cubic plane curves.

At the same time Newton developed the methods of calculation hand in hand with Gottfried Leibniz.

## Optics

Newton carried out research with the refraction of light, and managed to show that the multicolored spectrum produced by a prism could be recomposed into white light by means of a lens and a second prism.

This allowed him to conclude that color is the product of objects that interact with already colored light rather than the objects that generate the color themselves, this theory is called Newton's Color Theory.