History of science and scientific ephemeris

Since the origin of the universe, humanity has been consistent in the desire to understand and explain the functioning of each element that makes it up, a trend that undoubtedly gave rise to knowledge systems related to the physical world and its phenomena, those that today we know as science and that carries with it the search for knowledge about the fundamental truths and laws that govern our universe.

Science has been evolving and maturing until reaching the 3 great sciences from which the different studies derive, these are:

  • The physical sciences that focus their research and observation on the inorganic world and are made up of fields such as astronomy, physics, chemistry and Earth sciences.
  • The biological sciences focusing their study on biology and medicine involving the organic world and life processes.
  • The social sciences that focus on anthropology and economics studying the social and cultural aspects of human behavior.

Astronomy has been one of the scientific branches of greatest interest, since it explores the ends of the world, within the astronomical environment and celestial navigation, scientific ephemeris play a fundamental role, since they provide the positions of the natural astronomical objects, in addition to artificial satellites in the sky. These ephemeris have facilitated astronomical navigation, and scientific advances related to astronomy.

But the reality is that science has managed to enrich people's knowledge, not only in the astronomical area, but at the same time it has done so in different areas of development and knowledge, thanks to what has been achieved in the evolution of the human race.

In the evolutionary process of science we have seen innumerable characters intervene, who, through their contributions, have been in charge of building history.

Some of these characters probably have the greatest impact and relevance within the scientific world, however, each one of them necessary to achieve the advances that we know today and that we probably continue to design inside and outside of our humanity.

Some of the scientific figures who have set the pace in the development of the history of science are:

Aristotle (384 BC- 322 BC)

One of the fathers of science pioneering the techniques of logic, observation, research and demonstration is Aristotle, from Greece, in the fourth century BC. who would be the one to shape Western philosophical and scientific culture through the Middle Ages and early modern era, in addition to influencing some aspects of the natural sciences, even up to the 18th century.

However, there have been many characters throughout the history of science who have made invaluable contributions that paved the way for what is now modern science.

Hypatia (355 or 370 - 415 or 416)

One of these characters is Hypatia of Alexandria, a very influential character in ancient times, she was a mathematician, a philosopher dedicated to science and astronomy, she was born in the fourth century in Alexandria, her undoubted scientific heritage which she inherited from her father the mathematician Theon made her stand out in the scientific world, and many even came to think that her contributions and intelligence far exceeded that of her father. Hypatia achieved what was impossible for women at that time, which was to study and break through to knowledge.His studies were carried out at the science museum where his father worked, he also studied in Rome and Athens

  • She was a Mesoplatonic teacher, who taught mathematics, philosophy and astronomy.
  • Among Hypatia's contributions are the annotations in Diophantus's arithmetic, with which she sought to help and facilitate mathematical operations.
  • She wrote the geometry treatise on the conics of Apollonius.
  • she took her father's astronomical studies further and also elaborated a canon of astronomy in which she analyzed the tables of Ptolemy's almagest.

But above all Hypatia had important contributions in the area of ​​invention, which despite having been dismissed at the time, paved the way and managed to appear in different scientific references, such is the case of:

she created a design improvement for the astrolabe, the hydrometer, the hydroscope, she was also among the main creators of the hydrometer.

Much of her life and work was under the shadow of repudiation for being considered pagan, which even led her to be assassinated, Hypatia is remembered as a symbol of the destruction of classical thought and the advance of medieval obscurantism, her history adds to that of the greatest thinkers in history who experienced censorship and repudiation for imparting their knowledge.

Thales of Miletus (624/623 BC – 548/545 BC)

she is another valuable figure as a precursor of modern science, he was one of the seven wise men of Greece, he was a mathematician, astronomer and pre-Socratic philosopher, considered as the main Greek philosopher.

One of her most valued contributions within the scientific world stands out in her work to explain natural phenomena without resorting to mythology.

Despite the fact that there are some conflicting opinions about whether or not Thales left writings, there is a current that affirms that he wrote about the solstice and about the equinox, calculating the duration of the years and their time.

he has been credited with stellar nautical guidance, described the position of the Little Bear, and thought that the constellation might be useful as a guide for navigation at sea.

Democritus (460 BC - 370 BC)

His formulation of an atomic theory of the universe is one of the main reasons why this character is among the most relevant in the history of ancient science and his influence on modern science.

This theory holds that everything is made up of "atoms", which are physically but not geometrically indivisible; that between the atoms there is an empty space; that atoms are indestructible, and have always been and always will be in motion; that there are an infinite number of atoms and types of atoms that differ in shape and size. Of the mass of atoms Democritus said: "The more any indivisible exceeds, the heavier it is." However, the exact position of it on the atomic weight is in dispute.

Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519)

A mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, botanist, musician and writer, Da Vinci managed to demonstrate an unsurpassed creativity in the scientific environment through the conceptualization of the helicopter, the tank, concentrated solar energy, the calculator, he also succeeded in describing a rudimentary theory of plate tectonics.

Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642)

Astronomer, physicist and engineer, he was the forerunner of modern science, his contributions focused on the study of speed, gravity and free fall, the principle of relativity, inertia and projectile motion

he was the creator of the thermoscope, which became the forerunner of the thermometer.

he was the one who invented the telescope, thanks to which he managed to make the first observations of the moon, and also discovered planets such as venus, jupiter and saturn and 4 of their moons.

Isaac Newton (1643 – 1727)

Without a doubt, another great character in the history of science.

Newton within his scientific contributions, described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, laying the foundations for classical mechanics, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries and is the basis of modern engineering .

Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882)

he was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, who developed a model through which he explains in a logical and unified way the diversity of life.

Among the contributions of this scientist, Darwin managed to demonstrate that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors through the process he called natural selection.

In addition to this, he examined human evolution and sexual selection and the expression of emotions in man and animals.

Nikola Tesla (1856 – 1943)

Tesla is considered by many to be the most important scientist and inventor of modern times.

Tesla has been credited with important contributions to the field of electricity and magnetism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

His patents and theoretical work laid the foundation for modern alternating current (AC) electrical power systems, which include polyphase power distribution systems and the AC electric motor.

His contribution managed to contribute to the start of the Second Industrial Revolution and has been a fundamental input in the development of modern science.

Max Planck (1858 – 1947)

The main scientific contributions of this German physicist focus on the creation of the theory of quantum physics, which revolutionized the understanding of atomic and subatomic processes.

Marie Curie (1867 – 1934)

she was an outstanding Polish physicist and chemist, a pioneer in the field of radioactivity.

Throughout her career she received 2 Nobel prizes in two different scientific branches, she founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and Warsaw and was also the first professor at the University of Paris.

Within his contributions to modern science are:

The development of a theory of radioactivity, a term that would have been coined by her.

The development of techniques to isolate radioactive isotopes.

The discovery of two new elements, radium and polonium.

she led the first studies for the treatment of neoplasms ("cancers"), using radioactive isotopes.

Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955)

Probably one of the most recognized names in the world, Einstein was a German physicist who had important contributions and scientific advances.

One of Einstein's main scientific contributions was his theory of relativity and mass-energy equivalence, expressed by the equation E = mc2

He also developed fields such as the special theory of relativity, which relates mechanics to electromagnetism, and the general theory of relativity, in which he sought to extend the principle of relativity to nonuniform motion and provide a new theory of gravitation.

Probably his trajectory within modern science has been one of the most diverse, since it is known that Einstein published 272 scientific works and more than 100 non-scientific works.

Niels Bohr (1885 – 1962)

he was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, earning him a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

His work allowed him to solve problems that could not be solved through classical physics and that focused on the nuclear model of the atom.

Alan Turing (1912 – 1954)

Regarded as the father of modern computing. He provided an influential formalization of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine.

This English mathematician and logician made an important contribution within the scientific community which would be the forerunner of the debate on artificial intelligence.

He designed one of the first models of computer storage programs, the ACE, although it was not fully built until 1948.

Richard Feynman (1918 - 1988)

he was an important American physicist who made considerable contributions to modern science.

Nobel laureate, he achieved important recognition thanks to his contributions in quantum physics, quantum electrodynamics and particle physics, as well as quantum computing and nanotechnology.

It is impossible not to highlight his trajectory within modern science, where he ranked as one of the best known in the world, and thanks to the fact that he achieved important dissemination through his books and conferences. < /p>

Among many of the great contributions that this outstanding figure of science achieved was leaving as a legacy raising the possibility of quantum computers for which he played a crucial role in the development of the first massive parallel computer, finding innovative uses for it in numerical computations, building neural networks and physical simulations using cellular automata.

Probably within the scientific ephemerides these characters are a small quota of the important personalities that have played a fundamental role in the history of science.


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