Charles Darwin, the postulates of the precursor of modern biology

In 1809, the English biologist Charles Robert Darwin, considered the forerunner of modern biology, was born in Shrewsbury, the capital of the county of Shropshire, in the west of England and near Wales, due to his theory of biological evolution by natural selection. He died in 1882, as a result of heart disease.

What is Darwinism?

The expression Darwinism also as social Darwinism or social evolutionism, includes the theories of Darwin, related to biological evolution by natural selection of the strongest species and their offspring, giving rise to new specimens that evolved from a common parent.

Darwinism has to do with the currents that drive the survival of the fittest individuals, as a form of social evolution.

Darwin defended with these ideas, the existence of more dominant living beings in the social and political sphere, such as the holocaust and colonialism.

Currently this term is in disuse, however, it is usually used to refer, for example, to the most technologically advanced advantage, and for believing in Christianity, or when, through hypothetical explanations, a response is given to changes that occur at the political, economic and social levels.

Darwin's Origin of Species

Darwin, possessor of great analytical thinking, believed that life had a scientific explanation and not a divine one. Through his research, he verified his theory of the evolution of species, according to which they constantly transform, giving rise to new species, which he defined as “offspring with modification”.

The voyage that the British naturalist made in 1831, on the HMS Beagle , was decisive in his evolutionary ideas. He was amazed at the large number of animal species that he found in the Galapagos Islands, in the Pacific Ocean.

Likewise, he noticed that each species of bird had very subtle characteristics that differentiated them from one another, perhaps because each one lived in a different natural environment, and fed differently as well.

With his work called “The Origin of Species” , published in 1859, the British biologist wanted to publicize the idea of ​​ natural selection . He defended the theory that species are not immutable, on the contrary, he affirmed that natural selection configured the fundamental mechanism in the evolution of species.

In order to respond to the different satires and objections from many sectors, starting from the scientific to the religious, made to some explanations and concepts exposed in his book, Darwin had the need to reissue up to seven times.

He stated that the evolution happens gradually and not in “jumps”. It is related to the differential reproduction that genotypes create. The natural selection establishes the adaptation and speciation of living beings, regardless of the influence of a creator. That the strongest genotype survives to adapt to its environment.

In short, organisms never stop changing, species are dynamic. The specimens that manage to survive in a certain environment will have descendants that will inherit their same properties. Thus, species evolve according to natural selection.

An example clearly explains Darwin's theory of natural selection. Two bears are hunting in the snow, one brown and one lighter.The first has little chance of hunting without being seen, while the second, due to its light fur, will be able to hunt without being detected, so it will have more energy and live longer

By virtue of the above, the light-colored bear will have more opportunities to reproduce. The brown bear will have fewer children than the white bear and, therefore, there will be a larger population of light bears. These, in turn, will reproduce more and in the end, the number of light bears will predominate over the brown ones.

Among the population of white bears, some will be more so than others. So the whiter ones will have more chance to hunt than the less white ones. The constant evolution of the specimens will give rise to a population completely adapted to its environment.

Natural selection

Darwin held that natural selection is the ideal mechanism for evolution, because traits are sometimes heritable. Many particulars that living beings possess are hereditary. In this way, the evolutionists and the creationists arose.

Another of the foundations of his theory of natural selection, is that in each generation of organisms, there is a struggle for limited resources, because more descendants arise than their environment can support .

Likewise, he argued that the heritable traits in the descendants of each generation are usually different in terms of color, shape, size, among others, which will be heritable.

That beings with favorable traits will have more descendants in the next generation than their peers, since reproduction and survival are safer. That favorable traits will become more prevalent in the next generation.

Likewise, offspring with advantageous traits will quickly adapt to their range, since as the generations go by, they will be more reproductive than their peers.

Darwin used his model of evolution through natural selection to respond to the patterns he studied during his travels, for example the one he made to the Galapagos Island, in Ecuador, where he determined that if If a group of finches shared the same parent, they would look a lot like each other.

Whereas if another group of finches had remained on another island, without contact, for several descents, each group would have inherited different traits (beak sizes and shapes), because they developed in different environments. This contributed to the development of new species on the island.

With his hypothesis of natural selection, Darwin ensured that it favored the most favorable traits, those that were most apt to survive and reproduce quickly in a given environment.

The evolutionist scientist Darwin, came to affirm that man was just an animal -he was no one special in the universe-, to which the law of natural selection affects the same as other living beings. With this idea he made his way in his research on the origin of the human being, concluding that he descended from the ape.


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