Albert Einstein, the German scientist who transcended the 19th and 20th centuries

Considered the scientist of the 19th and 20th centuries, the German physicist of Jewish origin Albert Einstein, was recognized in 1921 with the Nobel Prize Physics , for his studies on the photoelectric effect and his contribution to theoretical physics.

Who was Albert Einstein?

A native of Ulm, the German city where he was born in 1879, later nationalized Swiss, Austrian and American. He became known mainly for his Theory of Relativity (general and special), which was quite controversial and caused a stir in the field of science.

Before he died at the age of 76, in Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America, in 1955, he worked assiduously to unify gravitational and electromagnetic forces into a single theory, and proclaiming socialist, pacifist and Zionists.

During 1905, he published four papers of great scientific importance, related to the photoelectric effect (which earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921), the Brownian motion (with which he earned his Ph.D.), the special theory of relativity and mass equivalence -energy (E = mc2).

Also, thanks to these investigations, in 1909, he taught at the University of Bern, Switzerland, and several years later in Prague, Czech Republic. In the year 1914, he taught at the Prussian Academy of Sciences, in Berlin, Germany.

Finally, in 1932, living in the United States of America, he was a professor at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, eventually obtaining US nationality.

Einstein's laws and theories

One of the most notable phrases the physics genius mentioned in an interview published in the Saturday Evening Post newspaper in October 1929 by journalist George Sylvester Viereck was, " Imagination is more important than knowledge".

Indeed, Einstein put his imagination to flight instead of the science of mathematics, in order to construct his famous equation. Of the important scientific investigations that he carried out, among the main laws and theories of his are.

Photoelectric effect

One of the scientific articles published by Einstein in 1905, was “On a heuristic point of view concerning the production and transformation of light”, better known as the “Photoelectric effect”. For this research, he was recognized in 1921, with the Nobel Prize in Physics.

He stated that tiny particles of different energy, either because of their color or radiation frequency, make up light. He based his research on his statistical-mechanical methodology.

To easily explain this study, if a shimmering beam of appropriate frequency is shined onto a metal surface, electrons will be produced from the surface, which is known as the photoelectric effect.

Theory of special relativity

This theory was formulated by Einstein in 1905, and translates into one of the scientific advances that marked history. This hypothesis seeks to explain how movement or speed is a determining factor of time, since it depends on it.

This research was based on two assumptions:

  • If in the field of physics, the laws remain immutable, if the referential mechanism remains inert.
  • If a law is followed within one system, therefore, it will be followed in any other. The speed of light is a global constant.

Equivalence between mass and energy

Through this research, Einstein proved that if the energy of a body increases, there is an increase in mass. That is, a change in energy is equivalent to a change in mass, and that this is the measure of a similar amount of energy.

To summarize his work, he established the formula of E = mc2 , where E represents energy, m represents mass, and c represents the speed of light. This equation has been the most famous in scientific history.

Theory of general relativity

This theory was published by Einstein in 1916. It tries to explain what is perceived as the force of gravity, even stating that the sun and the planet earth modified the geometry of space.

Contends that time and space are interrelated and cannot be separated. Gravity is a consequence of their disproportion.

Brownian motion

Brownian motion has to do with the random motion of microscopic particles, which remain in a gaseous or liquid environment. For example, pollen in a drop of water. Tiny pollen particles are seen moving randomly without any explanation.

This is due to the fact that its surface is constantly agitated by molecules. Likewise, this movement influenced Einstein's studies of molecules.

Einstein's inventions

His contribution to science allowed the development of important inventions among which are:

The laser beam

In 1953, Einstein established the guidelines for the advancement of lasers and their predecessors, the masers, a device whose function is similar to lasers, but used microwave radiation instead of light. Today it is used in radio telescopes and atomic clocks.


Thanks to the work on the photoelectric effect formulated by Einstein, it was possible to start up the television, for which the Special Theory of Relativity had to be considered, necessary for the correction of a few defects, otherwise the images on the TV would look fuzzy, unintelligible.

Digital cameras

Einstein, building on his work on the photoelectric effect , established that light exhibits both wave and particle behavior. In the case of digital cameras, they use CCD sensors and not photographic film, like conventional cameras.

Statistics and financial market

Einstein's work on Brownian motion shows that there are currently similarities between the random behavior of particles in a liquid environment and the variable behavior of stock rates on the stock market.

Thanks to the Brownian movement, models were developed on the behavior of the financial market and its statistics.

Likewise, in the field of nanotechnology (the manipulation of very small materials, on a molecular scale), physicists use Einstein's formulas to cancel Brownian motion and thus dominate nanoparticles.

                                                            due to the valuable contribution he made to theoretical physics.

Among these inventions, the refrigerator, the microwave, the GPS, nuclear energy, the gyrocompass and the microchip stand out.

Albert Einstein's IQ

The physicist Albert Einstein , was recognized not only for his significant contribution to the field of science, but also for his extraordinary IQ

His IQ was higher than 160, equaled by Stephen Hawking and Bill Gates, which means that he was gifted. Him being one of the few people in the world with such a high IQ.


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