On August 5, 1872, in Sao Luís do Paraitinga (Brazil), Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz was born, who would become a Brazilian medical epidemiologist.

On this day (August 5), 1872, in Sao Luís do Paraitinga (Brazil), Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz was born, who would become a Brazilian medical epidemiologist.
Oswaldo Cruz was a Brazilian doctor, bacteriologist pioneer, epidemiologist and public health official and founder of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute.
At the age of 15 he began studying at the School of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro and in 1892 he graduated as a doctor, with a thesis on water as a vehicle for the propagation of microbes.
Inspired by the great work of Louis Pasteur, who had developed the theory of the disease germs, four years later he went to Paris to specialize in bacteriology at the Pasteur Institute., which brought together the great names of this branch of science at the time. It was financed by his mother-in-law, a wealthy Portuguese merchant.
Cruz found the port of Santos devastated by an epidemic of bubonic plague that threatened to reach Rio de Janeiro, and he immediately became involved in combating this disease. The mayor of Rio de Janeiro authorized the construction of a plant to manufacture serum against the disease that had been developed at the Pasteur Institute by Alexandre Yersin and collaborators. He asked the institution for a scientist who could bring this knowledge to Brazil. The Pasteur Institute replied that this person was already available in Brazil: Dr. Oswaldo Cruz.
On May 25, 1900, the Federal Institute of Therapy of Serums was created, destined for the production of sera and vaccines against bubonic plague, with Baron Pedro Afonso as general director and the young bacteriologist Oswaldo Cruz as technical director.
Using the Federal Institute of Serum Therapy as a technical-scientific base, he embarked on a rapid succession of major sanitation . His first challenge was an epidemic of yellow fever, an endemic disease that had earned Rio de Janeiro the ominous reputation of the 'Tomb of Foreigners'. Between 1897 and 1906, 4,000 European immigrants had died there from the disease. Cruz followed the new technique of eradicating mosquitoes and their breeding sites, fumigating houses, and isolating the sick. Many opposed the campaign, including doctors, the military, and the poor, but the campaign was successful.
In 1904 he was unsuccessful in implementing widespread vaccination against smallpox , due to popular resistance to it. In the first five months of the year, more than 1,800 people were hospitalized. On November 16 the uprising was controlled, but compulsory vaccination was suspended. In 1908, a violent smallpox epidemic caused people to flock to vaccination units. About 9,000 people died. Cruz was vindicated and recognized the merit of him.
Among the international scientific community, its prestige was already indisputable In 1907, on the occasion of the XIV International Congress of Hygiene and Demography in Berlin, Cruz received the gold medal in recognition of the sanitation of Rio de Janeiro.
How curious to comment that your sanitation campaign in the state of Amazonas allowed the completion of the construction of the Madeira- Mamoré, which had been interrupted due to the large number of deaths from malaria and yellow fever among workers.
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- We're going North
- why?
- let's start the vaccination campaign
- let's go to the countryside!
- countryside?
- let's go to the countryside to campaign!
- no, I said we're going North
- of course!
- let's go
- to the countryside!
- good
- and we will campaign in the countryside
- good
- and we will sleep in a tent in the countryside during the campaign
- you are like a child
- and we will paint like Pedro Campaña
- wait, I forgot the earplugs
- and we will paint the countryside like Pedro Campaña in the tent...
- I already have the earplugs, let's go
- ...

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