April 5, 1956 the first chemical synthesis of morphine is published.

On this day (April 5), 1956, the first chemical synthesis of morphine was published.
Morphine is a painkiller from the opiate family that occurs naturally in various plants and animals, including humans.
The medical uses of morphine are against pain, shortness of breath and for drug use disorder (in some countries for patients who cannot take methadone).

Humans have cultivated the opium poppy for at least 7,000 years. Evidence of cultivation and use has been found in various parts of Europe as early as 5700 BC. C.. By 3400 B.C. C., the Sumerians in Mesopotamia called opium “Gil” (happiness) and opium “Hul Gil” (joy plant). Knowledge of the cultivation of this plant was passed on to the Assyrians, the Babylonians and finally the Egyptians.

Morphine was discovered as the first active alkaloid extracted from the opium poppy plant in December 1804 in Paderborn by the German pharmacist Friedrich Sertürner . In 1817, Sertürner reported experiments in which he administered morphine to himself, three young children, three dogs, and a mouse; all four people nearly died. Serüner ended up being addicted to the drug and warned about it.

At least three methods of total synthesis of morphine from raw materials such as coal tar and petroleum distillates have been patented, the first of which was announced on April 5, 1952 by the Dr. Marshall D. Gates, Jr. (1915) at the University of Rochester .

Despite these new production methods, the main source of morphine is still Poppy or Opium Poppy.

As a curiosity to comment that in Spain, near Granada, a cave called the Cueva de los Murciélagos, capsules of this plant were found dating from the year 4200 a. C. approximately.

-------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- ------
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- about chemical morphine
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- heavy...

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