On this day (December 3), 1967, for the first time in the history of Medicine, the surgeon Christian Barnard, assisted by a specialized team of 20 people, and after more than eight hours in the operating room, transplants the heart to Louis Washkanzy.
Christiaan Neethling Barnard was born on November 8, 1922 and was a South African cardiac surgeon known for performing the first person-to-person heart transplant operation in the world.
Barnard did his internship and residency at the Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, after which he worked as a general practitioner in Ceres, a rural town in the province of Corporal .
he Completed his master's degree, receiving an M.D. in 1953 from the University of Cape Town. In the same year he obtained a doctorate in medicine (MD) from the same university for a dissertation entitled "The treatment of tuberculous meningitis".
Shortly after qualifying as a doctor, Barnard conducted experiments on dogs while researching intestinal atresia, a birth defect that allows life-threatening gaps to develop in the intestines. Jannie Louw used this innovation in a clinical setting and Barnard's method saved the lives of ten babies in Cape Town.
After the first successful kidney transplant in 1953 in the United States, Barnard performed the second transplant in South Africa in October 1967, the first in Johannesburg the year before.
On January 23, 1964, James Hardy , of the The University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, Mississippi, conducted the first
heart transplant in the world and the world's first heart xenotransplantation transplanting a chimpanzee heart into a desperately ill and dying man. This heart beat in the patient's chest for approximately 60 to 90 minutes. The patient, Boyd Rush, died without regaining consciousness.
Barnard had experimentally transplanted forty-eight hearts into dogs, which was about a fifth of the number Adrian Kantrowitz had performed at Maimonides Medical Center in New York and about a sixth of the number that Norman Shumway had performed at Stanford University in California. Barnard had no dogs that had survived more than ten days, unlike Kantrowitz and Shumway, who had dogs that had survived for more than a year.
With the availability of new advances introduced by various pioneers, also including Richard Lower
At the Medical College of Virginia, several surgical teams were in a position to prepare for a human heart transplant.Barnard had a patient willing to undergo the procedure, but as with other surgeons, he needed a suitable donor
Barnard performed the world's first person-to-person heart transplant operation in the first few hours Sunday morning, December 3, 1967. Louis Washkansky, a 54-year-old grocer who suffered from diabetes and incurable
heart disease, was the patient. Barnard was assisted by his brother Marius Barnard, as well as a team of thirty staff members. The operation lasted more than five hours. The donor heart came from a young woman, Denise Darvall, who had been brain-dead in an accident on December 2, 1967, while crossing a street in Cape Town.
As a curiosity, many surgeons abandoned heart transplantation due to poor results, often due to the rejection of the transplanted heart by the patient's immune system. Barnard persisted until the advent of cyclosporine, an effective immunosuppressive drug, which helped revive the operation around the world.
- hello, I'm the anesthetist
- pass, pass
- hello, I'm the head nurse
- pass, pass
- hello, I'm the doctor's assistant
- pass, pass
- hello, I'm the ice guy
- the one with the ice?
- for the bar
- what bar?
- I don't know, no bar?
- no party?
- well there are a lot of people in here
- because we are going to operate
- a.... a.... listen!.... where is the sick man?