On this day (September 29), 1901, Enrico Fermi was born, one of the most important physicists of the 20th century, combining theory and experiments.
In a local market, Fermi found a physics book, the Elementorum physicae mathicae of 900 pages. Written in Latin by the Jesuit father Andrea Caraffa , professor of
Collegio Romano, featured mathematics, classical mechanics, astronomy , optics and acoustics as understood at the time of publication in 1840. With a scientifically inclined friend, Enrico Persico, Fermi pursued projects such as building gyroscopes.and measure the acceleration of gravity of the Earth. A colleague of Fermi's father gave him books on physics and mathematics which he quickly assimilated.
Fermi presented his thesis, "A theorem of probability and some of its applications" (Un teorema di calcolo delle probabilità ed applicazioni Sue alcune), to the Escuela Normal Superior in July 1922, and received her laurea at the unusually young age of 20.
While writing the appendix to the Italian edition of the book Fundamentals of Einstein Relativity by
August Kopff in 1923, Fermi was the first to point out that hidden within the famous Einstein equation ( E = mc 2 ) there was a huge amount of nuclear potential energy to be exploited. "It doesn't seem possible, at least in the near future," he wrote, "to find a way to release these terrifying amounts of energy, which is very good because the first effect of an explosion of such a terrifying amount of energy would be to shatter to the physicist who had the misfortune to find a way to do it."
In 1926, at the age of 24, he applied for a professorship at the Sapienza University of Rome . During his stay in Rome, Fermi and his group made important contributions to many practical and theoretical aspects of physics. In 1928, he published his Introduction to Atomic Physics ( Introduzione alla fisica atomica ), which provided Italian university students with an up-to-date and accessible text.
In 1938, Fermi received the Nobel Prize in Physics at the age of 37 for his "demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions caused by slow neutrons". After Fermi received the award in Stockholm , he did not return to Italy, but continued to New York City with his family in December 1938, where they applied for permanent residence. The decision to move to the United States and become American citizens was mainly due to the racial laws in Italy.
Fermi said, "I remember very vividly the first month, January 1939, that I started working at Pupin Laboratories because the things started to happen very quickly. In that period, Niels Bohr was at a conference at Princeton University and I remember one afternoon Willis Lamb came back very excited and said that Bohr had leaked some big news. The big news that had leaked was the discovery of fission and at least the outline of its interpretation. Then, somewhat later that same month, there was a meeting in Washington where the possible importance of the newly discovered fission phenomenon was first discussed in semi-jocular fashion as a possible source of nuclear power."
Fermi was the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1 . He has been called the "architect of the nuclear age" and the "architect of the atomic bomb".
As a curiosity, comment that Many awards, concepts and institutions bear the name of Fermi, including the Enrico Fermi Award, the Enrico Fermi Institute, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, and the synthetic element fermium, making him one of only 16 scientists to have elements named after him. Fermi taught or directly influenced no fewer than 8 young researchers who won Nobel Prizes.
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- Hi, is Fermi here?
- I have come to deliver a letter to you
- well it's not there
- can I give it to you?
- sign here
- no Fermi here
- no, let him sign
- I already told you that Fermi is not here
- the letter is for Fermi
- I got it
- and you have to sign
- Fermi is not present
- then I'm leaving
- won't you give me the letter?
- So sign
- Fermi is missing
- I'm leaving
- what a weird guy