On this day (January 20), 1775, André-Marie Ampère, a physicist and mathematician, was born in Lyon.
The phenomena of electricity and magnetism have been known since ancient times. But it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that a scientist, André-Marie Ampère, was able to establish a relationship between the two forces of nature.
Ampère has been very talented since he was little. At 12 years old he is already considered a mathematical genius. As a self-taught student, he studied the 20 volumes of the "Encyclopedia of Sciences, Arts and Crafts" by Denis Diderot (1713) and Jean le Rond d'Alembert (1717). This encyclopedia contains practically all the knowledge of the time and, therefore, Ampère obtains a great deal of knowledge without having to go to school.
André-Marie Ampère begins as a professor of mathematics and moves through various positions until he is accepted as a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1814 At the Academy, Ampère investigates various branches of Physics and Chemistry. Until he becomes interested in the magnetism experiments of a Danish physicist; Hans Christian Ørsted (1777).
To demonstrate his theories, Ampère designs "the current balance" . Using the balance, Ampère observes that two conductors in parallel attract each other when their current is in the same direction and repel each other when their current is in the opposite direction. That is why he assumes that the current generates a magnetic field around the conductor.
Ampère also discovers that a spiral-shaped conductor behaves, when current passes through it, like a bar magnet.
André-Marie Ampère writes the results of his experiments and lays the foundations for a mathematical theory on electromagnetism (a new word due to him ). For Ampère there is no longer any doubt that electricity and magnetism can refer to a single law of nature..
To reinforce his theory, Ampère develops a measuring instrument that indicates the intensity of current flow by means of a hanging magnetic needle. This invention, later improved, will be called an ammeter and will be one of the most important elements of electrical engineering.
As a curiosity to mention that between August and November 1881, the first world congress on electricity was held in Paris. In this congress, apart from presenting inventions such as Edison's light bulb or Siemens' electric tram, the participants deliberate on the unification of the nomenclature of electrical units. As a unit of current intensity it is decided to call it "amper" in memory of the physicist André-Marie Ampère
- Good morning
- did you know that two parallel conductors carrying a current exert a force on each other?
- no, I didn't know but...
- well yes, it's an experiment I did the other day
- it's very interesting but...
- yes, the properties of electromagnetism are amazing
- seems fine to me but...
- and I have other experiments in mind
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