On this day (September 17) in 1743 in Ribemont, France, Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, French philosopher, mathematician, economist, political scientist and great figure of the French Revolution, was born.
He was educated at the Jesuit College in Reims and at the Collège de Navarre in Paris, where he quickly demonstrated his intellectual prowess and earned his first public honors in mathematics.
From 1765 to 1774, he focused on science. In 1765 he published his first work on mathematics, entitled Essai sur le calcul intégral, which was well received, beginning his career as mathematical. He continued to publish more papers and on February 25, 1769, he was elected a member of the Académie royale des Sciences .
Condorcet worked with Leonhard Euler and Benjamin Franklin . He soon became an honorary member of many foreign academies and philosophical societies, including the American Philosophical Society (1775), the Royal Academy Swedish Academy of Sciences (1785), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1792) and also in Prussia and Russia.
In 1785, Condorcet published his Essay on the Application of Probability Analysis to Majority Decisions , one of his most important works. This work described several now-famous results, including Condorcet's jury theorem , which states that if each member of a group of voters is more likely to make a correct decision, the probability that the highest vote in the group is the correct decision increases as the number of group members increases, and Condorcet's paradox , which shows that the preferences of the group majority may become intransitive with three or more options, it is possible for a certain electorate to express a preference for A over B, a preference for B over C, and a preference for C over A, all from the same set of ballots.
The document also describes a generic Condorcet method, designed to simulate pairwise elections among all candidates in an election. He did not agree with the alternative method of aggregating preferences proposed by Jean-Charles de Borda (based on rankings summed from alternatives) . Condorcet was one of the first to systematically apply mathematics in the social sciences .
As a curiosity to note that Condorcet assumed a leadership role when the French Revolution swept through France in 1789, hoping for a rationalist reconstruction of society and championed many liberal causes.
He wrote Esquisse d'un tableau historique des progrès de l'spirit humain ( Sketch for a historical picture of the progress of the human spirit ), which was published posthumously in 1795 and is considered one of the main Enlightenment texts and historical thought.It tells the story of civilization as a story of progress in the sciences, shows the intimate connection between scientific progress and the development of human rights and justice, and describes the characteristics of a future rational society totally shaped by scientific knowledge
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- long live the revolution!
- and long live Concordet's paradox!
- long live Concordet's paradox!
- but what?
- what is that about?
- I wanted to shout it out
- but this is not the time
- why not?
- because we are in a demonstration
- yes, a demonstration for freedom
- well I can yell whatever I want
- but not now
- that seems like a paradox to me too
- yes, I should study this paradox of freedom in moments
- well, yell what you want