June 12, 1967 The Soviet Union launches the Venera 4 space probe towards Venus, which becomes the second probe to enter the atmosphere of Venus and the first to send data about it.

On this day (June 12), 1967, the Soviet Union launches the space probe Venera 4 towards Venus, which becomes the second probe to enter the atmosphere of Venus and the first to send data about her.
Venus is the second planet in the solar system in order of distance from the Sun. It is a rocky, terrestrial-type planet, often called Earth's sister planet, since both are similar in terms of size, mass and composition, although totally different in thermal and atmospheric matters (the average temperature of Venus is 463.85 ° C). Its atmospheric pressure is 90 times higher than Earth's. It is white/yellowish in color due to its atmosphere composed mainly of carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitrogen (N).
The Venera series of space probes were developed by the Soviet Union between 1961 and 1984 to collect information about Venus (28 missions; among them 16 Venera, 2 Vega). Successes included 3 atmospheric soundings, 10 landings, 4 orbiters, 11 flybys or impacts, and 2 balloon cloud soundings. Much of what is known about Venus today was discovered by these missions.
Venera 3 was the first human-made object to land on the surface of another planet in March 1966. Crashed.
Venera 4 was the first probe to enter the atmosphere of another planet and transmit data.
The main mission of the Venera 4 was the direct study of the Venusian atmosphere. It had two thermometers, a barometer, a radio altimeter, a gas analyzer and two radio transmitters.
The descent on Venus de Venera 4 lasted 93 minutes. The capsule deployed its parachute to an altitude of approximately 52 kilometers and began sending data on the pressure, temperature and composition of the gas back to Earth. Temperature control kept the inside of the capsule at -8°C. The temperature at 52 km was recorded as 33 °C and the pressure as less than 1 standard atmosphere (100 kPa). At the end of the 26 km descent, the temperature reached 262 °C and the pressure increased to 22 standard atmospheres (2200 kPa), and the signal transmission ended.
As a curiosity to comment that the atmospheric composition was measured at 90-93% carbon dioxide, 0.4 to 0.8% oxygen, 7% nitrogen and 0.1 to 1.6% water vapor.
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- I'm going to review Venera 4
- are you a doctor?
- no, I'm an engineer
- Does an engineer check venereas?
- yes, as an engineer I will review Venera 4
- And who are you going to check the sveneers?
- nobody
- no one?
- no, Venera 4 is an entity in itself
- I don't understand, and why do you call 4?
- because we have named it like this
- Does that venereal disease 4 correspond to what venereal disease?
- no, none, we talk about different things
- don't be embarrassed... we trust each other...
- Venera 4 is a space probe
- well, what a name you have given it... you have shown off... it leads to confusion...
- you really are a confusion...

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