In a general sense, Universalism is known as that belief in a universally accepted truth that does not admit discussion, accepted in all times and places. In itself it is not an ideology, but a way of conceiving reality or the truth in its entirety.

Universalism as a philosophical position sustains the existence of absolute and eternal truths that are common to all human beings, without exception, and that are accepted by unanimous consensus without the possibility of questioning.

Types of Universalisms

There are different types of thoughts that are considered universalists in their different fields. Thus, one can speak of moral, political, religious, ethnic or scientific universalism, and these various conceptions can often contradict each other.

However, every universalist trend responds to the desire to find principles or truths common to the entire human race, which reaffirms the need to find answers to the basic questions that all human beings ask themselves, regardless of their condition.< /p>

Science, religion and philosophy are paths through which man seeks knowledge of a unique and indisputable truth. For this reason, these disciplines of knowledge, each in its own way, all tend to establish universal doctrines.

They can be interpreted as follows:

  • Moral universalism

Since morality is the science that teaches what is good and how man can reach it, universalism in this aspect is frequently questioned, since those who deny it emphasize the relative nature of the very notion of good.

This can be formulated through the well-known popular saying that what is good for some will not be good for others. Faced with this, universalism responds that there are absolute and unalterable goods, such as health or freedom.

Moral Universalism has inspired some of the noblest ideas of humanity, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, or the idea of ​​Universal Justice, which is based on the idea that what is fair is only if it is for everyone and that all men are equal before the law.

  • Religious universalism

In the field of religion is where the idea of ​​universality gains strength, since all religions maintain the idea of ​​a Supreme Being, unique and eternal, creator of everything that exists. However, the existence of many religions and beliefs contradicts this concept, since each one considers her deity as the only one.

  • Scientific universalism

As for science, the notion that the truths established by it are unique and valid for all times and places is commonly accepted, although the very nature of the scientific method opens up the possibility that new theories can overturn the previous ones, according to the degree of development that human knowledge can reach in its constant evolution.

The universal truth and its detractors

Just as there are positions that affirm the existence of unique truths and that believe that these can be known through human reason, on the other hand there are positions that deny this idea, since they consider that truth can only be relative and always subject to particular interpretations.

Hence, the opposite of Universalism is the so-called Relativism, which considers that there are as many truths as there are points of view and denies the ability of man to get to know them through a method of reasoning that is unique and common to all.

Relativists consider that it is impossible to reach universal agreement about the existence of a supreme truth, and even consider that the very idea of ​​it is an error of human reason, which in itself is imperfect


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