ablative

The word ablative comes from the Latin ablatiuus, and in turn from ablatum, form of the verb auferre, since in this language they referred to certain contexts where it had a sense of place.

The ablative term or ablative, refers to many situations that depend on the context in which it is applied in grammar or Latin, but in general, this term usually indicates an external circumstance or the relationship between the process and the external thing.

The Latin ablative is a fusion between the ablative, the instrumental-sociative and the locative. Which means that Latin merged the values ​​of each of these into one, with the exception of some survivals that remain from the locative.

Therefore, it is a combination by means of syncretism or strict ablative that indicates “origin”; it also indicates "by or with" in passive constructions, and sometimes indicates "in" when locative.

Although, other specializations have also been created such as the ablative of cause, which indicates the causer, the ablative of time which refers to the moment that derives from the locative , the absolute ablative, and the ablative indicating the term being compared.

In linguistics, speaking of ablative generally indicates a multitude of circumstantial complements, of time, manner, place, cause, agent, among others.

Each value is expressed in Spanish by the use of prepositions for the semantic context, some of them are: por, con, en, sin, sobre, among others. That is, it indicates the syntactic function of the circumstantial complement.

Some of the most important uses of the ablative, are distributed in the three great scopes of meaning provided by its origin, and it is the ablative itself or the separative ablative, instrumental ablative, and locative ablative.

Ablative proper

This expresses the beginning or starting point, that is, it is the distance, in a figurative sense, and is used with the prepositions ab, ex, de, ignoring them with the proper names of minor places and the nouns house and field.

Instrumental ablative

This ablative on the other hand expresses a circumstance accompanied by verbal action, which may be in the medium, the company, the instrument, the cause or the manner.

The instrument indicates the means used to carry out the verbal action and is hardly used with personal names, except when it refers to beings who are passive instruments such as slaves or soldiers.

Here it is indicated, not only the cause, but also what triggers the verbal state or process, with the prepositions ex, de, ab, sino, and the cause that accompanies the verbal process in its development.

This ablative refers to who performs the action and what are the circumstances that accompany it: it is also known as an ablative of manner, and is built with the preposition cum.

Ablative locative

The locative ablative is frequently used to answer the ubi question in a local and temporal sense, as long as they are nouns that have not preserved the old locative case.

This is used with and without the preposition “in”, and with minor place proper names that do not have a locative without a preposition.


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